Ok, seems after encountering some threads of other users running into random segmentation faults when compiling code for long periods of time, I came across a known defect with Hyperthreading on Kaby Lake processors. Doing some testing, by disabling the HT in the BIOS, I was able to eliminate the segmentation faults and BTRFS checksum errors.
Anyone using the X210 on Linux (or any Sky Lake or Kaby Lake processors on Linux), should ensure they apply the microcode fix (not publicly available for Kaby Lake, only Sky Lake) or disable Hyperthreading in the BIOS.
Users of systems with Intel Kaby Lake processors should immediately
*disable* hyper-threading in the BIOS/UEFI configuration. Please
consult your computer/motherboard's manual for instructions, or maybe
contact your system vendor's support line.
The Kaby Lake microcode updates that fix this issue are currently only
available to system vendors, so you will need a BIOS/UEFI update to get
it. Contact your system vendor: if you are lucky, such a BIOS/UEFI
update might already be available, or undergoing beta testing.
You want your system vendor to provide a BIOS/UEFI update that fixes
"Intel processor errata KBL095, KBW095 or the similar one for my Kaby
We strongly recommend that you should not re-enable hyper-threading
until you install a BIOS/UEFI update with this fix.
https://lists.debian.org/debian-devel/2 ... 00308.html